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Looking at the Wikipedia page on thermocouples I found this table:
TypeTemperature range °C (continuous)Temperature range °C (short term)Tolerance class one (°C)Tolerance class two (°C)IEC Color codeBS Color codeANSI Color code
K0 to +1100−180 to +1300±1.5 between −40 °C and 375 °C
±0.004×T between 375 °C and 1000 °C
±2.5 between −40 °C and 333 °C
±0.0075×T between 333 °C and 1200 °C
IEC Type K Thermocouple.svg
BS Type K Thermocouple.svg
MC 96.1 K Thermocouple Grade Color Code.svg
J0 to +750−180 to +800±1.5 between −40 °C and 375 °C
±0.004×T between 375 °C and 750 °C
±2.5 between −40 °C and 333 °C
±0.0075×T between 333 °C and 750 °C
IEC Type J Thermocouple.svg
BS Type J Thermocouple.svg
MC 96.1 J Thermocouple Grade Color Code.svg
N0 to +1100−270 to +1300±1.5 between −40 °C and 375 °C
±0.004×T between 375 °C and 1000 °C
±2.5 between −40 °C and 333 °C
±0.0075×T between 333 °C and 1200 °C
IEC Type N Thermocouple.svg
BS Type N Thermocouple.svg
MC 96.1 N Thermocouple Grade Color Code.svg
R0 to +1600−50 to +1700±1.0 between 0 °C and 1100 °C
±[1 + 0.003×(T − 1100)] between 1100 °C and 1600 °C
±1.5 between 0 °C and 600 °C
±0.0025×T between 600 °C and 1600 °C
BS Type N Thermocouple.svg
BS Type R Thermocouple.svg
Not defined.
S0 to 1600−50 to +1750±1.0 between 0 °C and 1100 °C
±[1 + 0.003×(T − 1100)] between 1100 °C and 1600 °C
±1.5 between 0 °C and 600 °C
±0.0025×T between 600 °C and 1600 °C
BS Type R Thermocouple.svg
Not defined.
B+200 to +17000 to +1820Not Available±0.0025×T between 600 °C and 1700 °CNo standard use copper wireNo standard use copper wireNot defined.
T−185 to +300−250 to +400±0.5 between −40 °C and 125 °C
±0.004×T between 125 °C and 350 °C
±1.0 between −40 °C and 133 °C
±0.0075×T between 133 °C and 350 °C
IEC Type T Thermocouple.svg
BS Type T Thermocouple.svg
MC 96.1 T Thermocouple Grade Color Code.svg
E0 to +800−40 to +900±1.5 between −40 °C and 375 °C
±0.004×T between 375 °C and 800 °C
±2.5 between −40 °C and 333 °C
±0.0075×T between 333 °C and 900 °C
IEC Type E Thermocouple.svg
BS Type E Thermocouple.svg
MC 96.1 E Thermocouple Grade Color Code.svg
Chromel/AuFe−272 to +300n/aReproducibility 0.2% of the voltage; each sensor needs individual calibration. Write comment (0 Comments)

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To test my hypothesis about the temperature sensor being a thermocouple I realized that a thermocouple would have something like an op-amp as a buffer amp and to get the low voltage up to a logic level. An op-amp has an (ideally) infinite (actually) really high input impedance. This high impedance means that the amp does not load down the input circuit with high current draw.


This is why an op-amp has a high input impedance.

The temperature probe connections have a resistance of around 1000k. That's pretty high, which when coupled with the polarity markings indicates that there is an op-amp on the board and the temperature probe is a low current voltage source. Also known as a thermocouple.

This means I can now simulate the presence of the temperature probe by supplying an appropriate voltage(not sure how big yet though). By simulating the presence of the thermocouple I can test if the electronics will turn off the heater current at some point which means that it was just the thermocouple that failed. The outer braid of the thermocouple has failed where it enters the remains of the aluminium so that makes me think that something went badly wrong with the thermocouple.

While I had the multimeter out I also measured the heater coil's resistance- this came out at about 700k. So with a little math we can calculate the current flowing through the coil and also the wattage(not really that important but might be interesting to see how much power the electronics use).

I=230/700k  (Pretty sure 230V isn't RMS but I know it isn't Peak to Peak so it shouldn't give us a number that is too high)
I=230/700 000 (Now in SI units)
I=0.003288571A    (Seems very very low ???)

Now for power consumption:


This is clearly wrong so I decided to check again... It turns out that my fingers have a resistance of around 700k ohms and it was this resistance I measured. The heating coil appears as an open circuit so I think I'm going to have to melt out the remains of the Aluminium block and get a closer look. Write comment (0 Comments)

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Today I was given the smoke machine that we tried to use at a gig a few months ago where it tried to burn down the hall. Thankfully it only burnt a hole in the floor a bit.

So I am going to try and repair it as the only problem seems to be with the heat exchanger(Al structure fully melted and in a puddle in the bottom of the case) and somewhere in either a relay that controls the heating element or the temperature probe. My gut feeling is that the temperature probe is to blame and hopefully I can find a way to test it(perhaps with the oxy-acetylene torch from school). When checked with a multimeter the temperature probe gave a reading of between 0 and 3 ohms at room temp (about 30 degrees C) and a voltage reading of 0V(2000mV scale). If it were a thermistor I would expect the resistance to be somewhat higher and if it were a thermocouple I would expect a higher voltage(from a little reading on Wikipedia).

Here is a good overview where we can see the piping that was inside the heat exchanger and the Aluminium that made it up all spread out.

A view with the heat exchanger unit removed from the case.

The nozzle(I did mangle it pretty badly when trying to remove it and appear to have shorn through the silver solder(?) that held it onto the end of the smoke pipe.

The heat exchanger module. Here you can see the coils of pipe to carry the fog juice, the horizontal heating element and the puddle of solidified aluminium from when it overheated.

Just a quick picture to remind me which way to connect the temperature probe. It appears to be polarised which makes me think it's a thermocouple. If it is a thermocouple and a wire has broken from repeated heating/cooling cycles then that may explain the lack of voltage and the lack of voltage would explain the amount of heat applied to the heat exchanger when it overheated.
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Here are the photos as promised yesterday. I apologise for the quality but my iPod 4G was pretty much the only camera that functions reasonably well and reliably.

 The basic overview. The tag in the back right corner is a repair tag from when grandpa got it fixed at some stage.

 A view of the screen, keyboard and mousepad. the screen and keyboard should be re-usable but I'll need to find a new mousepad and buttons.

Some views of the bottom. At bottom with all of the removable sections partly removed. Clockwise from top right there is the CDROM drive, HDD bay, Floppy/Zip drive bay.

Here all of the removable modules are removed. Bottom left we can see the modem module with broken ribbon cable from a previous teardown I did.
 Here is the backplate with (L to R) VGA out, RS-232, 2xUSB, proprietry breakout plug, RCA video out, S-Video out, Printer port.

 2.5" HDD bay.
 CDROM sitting on top of HDD bay to get some angle on the front.
 Zip and Floppy drives side by side on top of HDD on top of CDROM, once again for some angle.
 A close up of the connector. Should be pretty easy for me to put in my own connectors.
 The where the battery was. It's a pretty big hole and a raspberry pi would probably fit in this space alone. Maybe some other pluggable module... Perhaps a replaceable CPU/RAM module or something.
The battery in all it's brick-like glory. It doesn't work as a battery anymore but if I did want to I could probably re-pack the original cells... Perhaps even increasing the capacity. :)

If you want any more detailed pictures or info post a comment and I'll get some for you. Write comment (0 Comments)

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